Mac keyboard shortcuts

By pressing certain key combinations, you can do things that normally need a mouse, trackpad, or other input device.

To use a keyboard shortcut, press and hold one or more modifier keys and then press the last key of the shortcut. For example, to use Command-C (copy), press and hold the Command key, then the C key, then release both keys. Mac menus and keyboards often use symbols for certain keys, including modifier keys:
* Command (or Cmd) ⌘
* Shift ⇧
* Option (or Alt) ⌥
* Control (or Ctrl) ⌃
* Caps Lock ⇪
* Fn

On keyboards made for Windows PCs, use the Alt key instead of Option, and the Windows logo key instead of Command.
Some keys on some Apple keyboards have special symbols and functions, such as for display brightness 

, keyboard brightness 

, Mission Control, and more. If these functions aren't available on your keyboard, you might be able to reproduce some of them by creating your own keyboard shortcuts. To use these keys as F1, F2, F3, or other standard function keys, combine them with the Fn key.

Cut, copy, paste, and other common shortcuts
* Command-X: Cut the selected item and copy it to the Clipboard.
* Command-C: Copy the selected item to the Clipboard. This also works for files in the Finder.
* Command-V: Paste the contents of the Clipboard into the current document or app. This also works for files in the Finder.
* Command-Z: Undo the previous command. You can then press Shift-Command-Z to Redo, reversing the undo command. In some apps, you can undo and redo multiple commands.
* Command-A: Select All items.
* Command-F: Find items in a document or open a Find window.
* Command-G: Find Again: Find the next occurrence of the item previously found. To find the previous occurrence, press Shift-Command-G.
* Command-H: Hide the windows of the front app. To view the front app but hide all other apps, press Option-Command-H.
* Command-M: Minimize the front window to the Dock. To minimize all windows of the front app, press Option-Command-M.
* Command-O: Open the selected item, or open a dialog to select a file to open.
* Command-P: Print the current document.
* Command-S: Save the current document.
* Command-T: Open a new tab.
* Command-W: Close the front window. To close all windows of the app, press Option-Command-W.
* Option-Command-Esc: Force quit an app.
* Command–Space bar: Show or hide the Spotlight search field. To perform a Spotlight search from a Finder window, press Command–Option–Space bar. (If you use multiple input sources to type in different languages, these shortcuts change input sources instead of showing Spotlight. Learn how to change a conflicting keyboard shortcut.)
* Control–Command–Space bar: Show the Character Viewer, from which you can choose emoji and other symbols.
* Control-Command-F: Use the app in full screen, if supported by the app.
* Space bar: Use Quick Look to preview the selected item.
* Command-Tab: Switch to the next most recently used app among your open apps. 
* Shift-Command-5: In macOS Mojave or later, take a screenshot or make a screen recording. Or use Shift-Command-3 or Shift-Command-4 for screenshots. Learn more about screenshots.
* Shift-Command-N: Create a new folder in the Finder.
* Command-Comma (,): Open preferences for the front app.

Sleep, log out, and shut down shortcuts
You might need to press and hold some of these shortcuts for slightly longer than other shortcuts. This helps you to avoid using them unintentionally.
* Power button: Press to turn on your Mac or wake it from sleep. Press and hold for 1.5 seconds to put your Mac to sleep.* Continue holding to force your Mac to turn off.
* Option–Command–Power button* or Option–Command–Media Eject 

* : Put your Mac to sleep.
* Control–Shift–Power button* or Control–Shift–Media Eject 

* : Put your displays to sleep.
* Control–Power button* or Control–Media Eject 

* : Display a dialog asking whether you want to restart, sleep, or shut down.
* Control–Command–Power button:* Force your Mac to restart, without prompting to save any open and unsaved documents.
* Control–Command–Media Eject 

* : Quit all apps, then restart your Mac. If any open documents have unsaved changes, you will be asked whether you want to save them.
* Control–Option–Command–Power button* or Control–Option–Command–Media Eject 

* : Quit all apps, then shut down your Mac. If any open documents have unsaved changes, you will be asked whether you want to save them.
* Control-Command-Q: Immediately lock your screen.
* Shift-Command-Q: Log out of your macOS user account. You will be asked to confirm. To log out immediately without confirming, press Option-Shift-Command-Q.
* Does not apply to the Touch ID sensor.

Finder and system shortcuts
* Command-D: Duplicate the selected files.
* Command-E: Eject the selected disk or volume.